Fabrication / Falsification

Fabrication or falsification occurs when a student invents or distorts the origin or content of information used as authority. Examples include:

  • Citing a source that does not exist

  • Citing information from a source that is not included in the source for which credit is given

  • Citing a source for a secondary proposition that it does not support

  • Citing a bibliography source when it was neither consulted nor cited in the body of the paper

  • Intentionally distorting the meaning or applicability of data

  • Inventing data or statistical results to support conclusions